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    托福阅读之教您正确高效地完成句子简化
    2018-01-31 15:58:22      来自: 重庆新航道学校官网      点击: 553

      句子简化题是托福阅读十大题型之一,根据托福官方OG 的说明每篇出 0-1 道,现阶段实际上基本稳定在一篇 1 道,是托福阅读必考的题型之一。考试难度虽然因人而异,但整体来说句子简化题对阅读 20 分以下的同学具有普遍的杀伤力。

    重庆新航道托福培训机构

      纵观托福阅读考试全局,句子简化题以句子为考察单位(实质是长难句分析),是其他题型(基于句子基本信息、句间逻辑关系、段落文章结构等)考察的基础。换言之, 具备解决句子简化题的能力是应对托福阅读的基本要求。

      句子简化题的出题形式简单规范,句子本身在文章中已经标亮,所有的句子简化题具有相同的题目要求:

      Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

      下面哪个句子最好的表达了文中用阴影标示的句子中的基本信息?错误选项对原句意思有重大改变,或漏掉了原句的基本信息。

      通过题目要求可以总结出解决句子简化题的原则: 正确选项要表达原句基本信息,(基本信息的)意思不能有大的变动,基本信息不能有所遗漏。

      原则反复提及的基本信息,很多同学的第一反应为句子意思,然后对整个句子进行翻译,凭借一个大体的意思去选择。 但基本信息不是全部信息,基本信息 = 全部信息 - 次要信息。 所以我们的第一个思路就是厘清句子主次。

      要厘清句子主次,免不了对句子进行结构分析。简单句的基本句型有主谓 / 主系表 / 主谓宾 / 主谓双宾 /主谓宾补,其中主、谓、宾表达谁干了什么,这应该是我们要找的基本信息,也就是句子主干。

      分析句子结构,厘清句子主次,找句子主干,是句子简化题的基本解题思路。 这对大多数考生来说并不难理解,可是相当的学生做题时却又把它抛诸脑后,比如对下面这道题,很多学生读完句子,第一反应句子的基本信息对应最后的 where 部分。

      TPO 20 PASSAGE 2 

      EARLY SETTLEMENTS IN SOUTHWEST ASIA

      Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies, not only at Abu Hureyra, but at many other locations such as 'Ain Ghazal, also in Syria, where goat toe bones showing the telltale marks of abrasion caused by foot tethering (binding) testify to early herding of domestic stock.

      Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

      A. In many areas besides Abu Hureyra, complex factors led to new economies including the herding of domestic stock.

      B. In 'Ain Ghazal and Syria, domestic stock was more important than it was at Abu Hureyra.

      C. Once early methods of herding animals improved, new economies were adopted.

      D. Many complex theories attempt to explain the early domestication of animals.

      如上文所讲,句子简化题的基本解题思路是句子结构分析,找句子主干。根据句意,该句可分为三部分:

      1、Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies,包含主谓宾,大体讲述发生了什么事。

      2、not only at Abu Hureyra, but at many other locations such as Ain Ghazal, also in Syria, 讲的是事情发生的地点,状语成分。

      3、where goat toe bones showing the telltale marks of abrasion caused by foot tethering (binding) testify to early herding of domestic stock. where 引导的非限制性从句用来修饰前面提到的地点。

      这三部分的关系可以用一个例子形象的表达,男生趁着圣诞节向喜欢的女生表白,在万达广场,万达布置的很漂亮。很明显,这句话的关键在于男生的行动,而不在于地点以及地点是什么样的。因此, Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies 表达的事情本身,就是基本信息,剩下的是次要信息。

      这里会有个问题,剩下的次要信息如何处理?是要全删除么?剩下的次要信息可要可不要,如果要保留,则要保证表达正确(虽然被归纳为次要信息,但是很多次要信息其实并未被全部删除,而是被缩写)。因此对选项的判断先看选项表达的基本信息,基本信息满足后再看次要信息,判断选项的过程也是对选项的进行主次信息区分的过程(其实,就做题经验来看,能正确不遗漏的表达基本信息的选项基本就一个)。

      A 选项里的 complex factors led to new economies,基本信息没有大的改变也没有遗漏; A选项将剩余的信息进行了缩写整合,原句的第二部分被改写成了In many areas besides Abu Hureyra,原句第三部分则成了including the herding of domestic stock. 所以A完全满足。

      B 选项,先看基本信息 domestic stock was more important than it was at Abu Hureyra,不符合。

      C 选项,Once early methods of herding animals improved, new economies were adopted,后半部分是对的,前半部分对应不上,也就是所谓的在重要方面改变了原义,不符合。

      D 选项,Many complex theories attempt to explain the early domestication of animals. 从以往的经验来看,有的学生错选 D,因为觉得跟 Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies在句式上很相似。但是 theories 对应不上 factors, early domestication of animals 对应不上 adoption of the new economies,所以不符合。通过分析可以看出,满足基本信息的只有 A 选项。

      ▶ 注意 1:

      句子简化题选取的往往都是结构复杂的句子,有同学会发现,刚刚例题是一个复合句,有主句有从句,基本信息所在的半句是包含主句主谓宾部分的句子主干,难道对于复合句而言找句子的基本信息意味着可以直接找主句句子主干(主谓宾或主系表)?且看下一例:

      TPO26 PASSAGE3

      SUMER AND THE FIRST CITIES OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST

      A major development was the discovery, again about 3000 B.C.E., that if copper, which had been known in Mesopotamia since about 3500 B.C.E., was mixed with tin, a much harder metal, bronze, would result. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

      A.Also around 3000 B.C.E., it was discovered that mixing copper, known from about 3500 B.C.E., with tin would create a much harder metal known as bronze.

      B.Although copper had been known since 3500 B.C.E in Mesopotamia, the discovery of bronze did not occur until around 3000 B.C.E.

      C.Another major development around 3000 B.C.E. was the discovery that copper could be mixed with a much harder metal known as tin.

      D.The development of bronze by mixing copper and tin probably occurred around 3000 B.C.E. But may have happened as early as 3500 B.C.E.

      这个句子也是主从复合句,主句句子主干是 a major development was the discovery, 可是从意思上稍加理解就会发现,这几个单词并没有表达什么有用信息,discovery 后面跟着的 that 从句内容才能真正表达 discovery 具体内容,才是更重要更基本的。这就好比,我要告诉你一个秘密,你满心期待的是秘密的内容而不是“秘密”这个名词。

      所以这个例题中,基本信息就成了 that 从句中的句子主干,而不是主句的句子主干, 也就是 if copper was mixed with tin, a much harder metal would result,剩下的是次要信息。这里需要注意,有的同学会发现,这里给出的基本信息与我们的分析相比多了条件句, 这是因为条件句或者说条件逻辑关系的内容在句子简化题中往往得以保留。 对选项进行分析之后,只有选项 A 表达了基本信息,其他次要信息无误。

      ▶ 注意 2:

      在区分句子主次这一思路下还有一个逻辑关系需要阐明,它与我们讲的厘清句子信息主次息息相关: 让步逻辑关系。

      TPO1 PASSAGE2

      THE ORIGN OF THEATER

      For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their wellbeing and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.

      Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

      A.A society's rites were more likely to be retained in the oral tradition if its myths were admired for artistic qualities.

      B.The artistic quality of a myth was sometimes an essential reason for a society to abandon it from the oral tradition.

      C.Some early societies stopped using myths in their religious practices when rites ceased to be seen as useful for social well-being.

      D.Myths sometimes survived in a society's tradition because of their artistic qualities even after they were no longer deemed religiously beneficial.

      这个句子从意义上可以分成上下两部分,每一部分都含有主谓宾结构,那么如何确定句子的主次呢?细心的同学会发现这个句子中间有一个插入语neverthless(尽管如此), 表达的是让步逻辑关系,因此 nevertheless 前面表达的信息是一个让步,后面的信息才是重点。 后面的半句含有一个并列结构 ,and前后连接了两个谓语动词共同构成谓语,调整语序后,后半句的句子主干是 they retained the myths as parts of their oral tradition and admired them,就是我们要找的基本信息,再加上表示原因(for their artistic qualities) 和 比 较(rather than for their religious usefulness)的状语次要成分。

      选项分析:

      A 选 项 表 达 的 是 一 种 可 能 性(more likely, if),而基本信息用一般过去时表达的是事实,所以不符合。

      B 选项 abandon it 错误,不符合。

      C 选项没有表达基本信息,不符合。

      D 选项 survive 是对 retain 和 admire 的同义替换,后面跟着原因和比较,无误。

      句子中的让步逻辑关系,可以很好的体现出主次 关 系,常见的让步逻辑关系引导词有:however, nevertheless, nonetheless;although, even though, though;but, yet;despite, in spite of;.

      在刚刚上一题的句子里有两套主谓结构,我们借助于 nevertheless 区分了两套主谓成分的主次关系, 其实,nevertheless 是一个连接副词,由它连接起来的是一个主从复合句。但如果两套主谓成分间是用并列连词 and 连接的,如何判断主次呢?如果由并列连词 and连接两套主谓成分,则句子是并列句, 两套主谓成分间没有主次关系。在这种情况下,要准确表达原句的基本信息则需要表达清楚每一套主谓成分以及它们之间的逻辑关系。换言之,就是表达清楚逻辑关系以及构成逻辑关系的双(多)方面,这是句子简化题的第二种解题思路。

      ONLINE TEST

      ELECTRICITY FROM WIND

      Large wind farms might also interfere with the flight patterns of migratory birds in certain areas, and they have killed large birds of prey (especially hawks, falcons, and eagles) that prefer to hunt along the same ridge lines that are ideal for wind turbines.

      Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

      A.Hawks, falcons, and eagles prefer to hunt along ridge lines, where wind turbines can kill large numbers of migratory birds.

      B.Wind turbines occasionally cause migratory birds to change their flight patterns and therefore may interfere with the areas where birds of prey prefer to hunt.

      C.Some of the best locations for large wind farms are places that may cause problems for migrating birds and birds of prey.

      D.Large wind farms in certain areas kill hawks, falcons, and eagles and thus might create a more ideal path for the flight of migratory birds.

      通过句义,该句可以分为上下两部分,上半句讲的是 wind farms 可能会影响 light patterns of migratory birds,下 半 句 讲 wind turbines kill large birds of prey。有的同学不够仔细,把两种birds看成了一种,把and看成顺承,认为 and 前后表 达因果关系,其实只要加分析就会发现原句说的是两种不同的 birds,讲的是 wind farm(wind farm 上有wind turbine)对不同 birds 造成的不同影响,and 前后表达的该是并列关系。这样 and 前后连接的是地位相同的两套主谓成分,没有主次之分, 则正确选项只需要表达清楚它们之间的并列逻辑关系同时表达正确这两方面的内容即可。可以优先用逻辑关系排除,再看逻辑关系的内容。

      选项分析:

      A 选项 where 引导的是修饰地点的定语从句,表达的是一种主从关系,不是并列关系,不符合。

      B 选项 and therefore,and 前后表达的是因果关系,不是并列关系,不符合。

      C 选项 可以简写为 locations for large wind farms may cause problems for migrating birds and birds of prey,locations for large wind farms分别对 migrating birds 和 birds of prey 产生影响,表达的是并列关系,且并列关系的两方面也正确,符合。

      D 选项 and thus 表示 and 前后表达的是因果关系,不是并列关系,不符合。

      通过上面例子的分析,可以看出利用逻辑关系排

      除可以快速提高做题速度,那么除了并列逻辑关系,还有哪些逻辑关系没有主次之分,可以实现类似的功能呢,常见的有:

      并 列 逻 辑:and, not only…but also, in addition to

      比 较 逻 辑:like, unlike, (not) as …as , than, as

      转折逻辑: but( 注意与 but 引导让步逻辑关系的

      区别 ), however(注意句间逻辑的情况), whereas, while,rather than

      因 果 逻 辑:because,for,since, as, therefore, thereby, thus , lead to, inspire, allow , reason

      这个暑期,来新航道重庆托福培训班 ,我们给考生最大的保障:签订协议,承诺不过重修,只有顶尖的托福培训学校,才敢做出如此承诺!

      莫等闲,白了少年头,空悲切。新航道托福暑假班 ,让我们好好充实这个暑假。


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