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    托福写作福利 英语写作技巧之平行结构
    2018-01-12 11:20:45      来自: 重庆环球教育学校      点击: 746

      托福写作一直是英语学习的痛点和难点。在托福考试中,不少阅读接近满分的考生都被自己作文分数拖了后腿。其实,一旦词汇量过关,想要在作文中实现逆袭并非难事,只需掌握一定技巧,勤加练习即可。今天,环球教育小编为大家带来了一篇托福写作干货。

      本文所要介绍的,就是可以提升作文档次的大杀器——平行结构。何为平行结构?平行结构(parallelism)是英语最常见的修辞手法之一,其本质是将逻辑上属于同一语法成分的词用相同结构的逻辑来表达。

      举个例子

      To be, or not to be: that is a question —— Shakespeare

      To be 和 not to be都是动词不定式(结构相同),都做主语(语法成分相同)。

      试想一下,如果这句话改成:To be, or not living: that is the question… 还能千古流芳吗?

      再举个例子

      Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. —— Francis Bacon

      读书足以冶情,足以博彩,足以长才。

      For delight, for ornament, and for ability 结构相同,都做宾语。其中文翻译也是漂亮的平行结构,朗朗上口。

      如若把句子改成: Studies serve for delight, ornament, and ability. 韵律感就减弱不少。

      童鞋们是否感受到了平行结构的魅力呢?使用平行结构不仅使语言句式整齐,节奏分明,同时也能清晰表达思想,增强语势,抒发感情,体现了英语的均衡美。

    重庆雅思培训

      平行结构有哪些类型?

      1. 单词平行

      Computers were very large, expensive and mainly used in offices and factories.

      从前的电脑又大又贵,并且主要在工厂和办公室使用。(large, expensive和used构成be动词后的平行结构)

      2. 短语平行

      Men, particularly, spend hours of their leisure time installing their own fireplaces, laying out their gardens; building garages and making furniture.

      特别是男人,常利用空闲时间安装壁炉、布置花园、建造车库、制作家具。(分词短语平行)

      3. 句子平行

      The history of educational theory is marked by opposition between the idea that education is development from within and that it is formation from without.

      两种观念的对立贯穿了教育理论的历史:教育是自内发展及教育是自外的塑造。(两个that引导的同位语从句平行,from within和from without平行)

      And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.

      美国约翰·F·肯尼迪的就职演说是英语演说的传世佳作,而其点睛之笔无疑是耳熟能详的“不要问国家能为你们做些什么,问问你们能为国家做些什么”,其之所以在后世的名人演讲中被广泛引用,部分归功于平行结构的魅力。

      哪些情况必须使用平行结构?

      平行结构向来是各种留学考试中语法题的重要考点,SAT,GMAT以及00年代的老托福都十分钟爱。为什么呢?因为容易出错!下文罗列了必须使用平行结构的信号词。作文中,该使用平行结构时,不平行,就别怪评卷老师不给高分啦。

      1. 使用并列连词(Coordinating Conjunctions)

      如and, or, ect.

      例:

      Enormous amounts are spent on cancer research and curing people suffering from the disease. ×

      Enormous amounts are spent on cancer research and on efforts to cure people suffering from the disease. ○

      第一句乍看之下没有问题,但其实存在逻辑漏洞,会使人误以为curing是和spent形成并列,第二句则通过effort to do sth.的名词短语消除了歧义。

      并列错误引起歧义是很多考生易犯,却时常忽视的错误,作文想拿高分,必须认真对待细节。

      2. 使用关联连词(Correlative Conjunctions)

      如both…and…, either…or…, neither…nor, not only… but also…,

      例:

      The conference was both helpful and contained a lot of information. ×

      The conference was both helpful and informative. ○

      虽然第一句单词量多,满足了写作凑字数强烈愿望,但第二句才是更简洁凝练的句子,informative意为“信息丰富的“,本身涵盖了”contain a lot of information“之意。

      例:

      The teacher not only wants his students to keep quiet but also to do the task. ×

      The teacher wants his students not only to keep quiet but also to do the task. ○

      not only…but also前后成分应该是平行结构,而第一句not only后成分是谓语动词wants, 而but also 后则是动词不定式,显然结构不平行。而根据句意,构成平行的应该是keep quiet和do the task这两个动作。

      3. 前后形成对比(Elements Linked In Comparison)

      如like, unlike, as much as, the same as, different from, more/less…than…

      例:

      The total expense (of camping) can be far less than the hotels. ×

      The total expense can be far less than the cost of hotels. ○

      than左右两边相比较的内容应是平行结构。本句中,相比较的应该是露营支出与宾馆开销之间比较比较,而并非是支出与宾馆比较。第一句犯了比较不清的错误。

      例:

      The success of the government’s anti-inflation efforts will depend as much on strong political will as on wise economic policy.

      (政府反通货膨胀努力的成功即有赖于明智的经济政策,也有赖于政治上的坚决意志。)

      第二句中的as后的on不可遗漏。

    重庆雅思学费

      平行结构可以用在哪呢?

      1. 用平行结构提出中心论点

      托福独立写作及雅思大作文中,常用的文章展开法之一是用二到四个理由(一般是三个)支持自己的立场,此类写法通常需要首段最后一句亮出中心论点(thesis statement),而中心论点构成的常见方法之一就是将三个分论点以平行结构的方式概括。

      例:

      托福真题:Can young people teach older people?

      范文论点句:Young people can update knowledge about new technologies for the elders, share attitudes towards life with them and bring freshness into their lives.

      这一句出现在了首段末尾,用了三个并列的动宾结构。文章主体部分则分为了三段,逐一详细论述了三方面的内容。

      例:

      托福真题:Has technology made the world better?

      范文论点句:However, most of these changes contribute to making our life more convenient, more comfortable and more wonderful.

      同样,首段尾句用了make+形容词比较级的平行结构,文章主体部分分别从科技如何使生活变得便捷、舒适、奇妙三个方面展开。

      例:

      托福真题:Working at home through telephone and computer is better than working in a company office. (题目本身也是完美的平行结构哦。)

      范文中心句:

      Personally, I believe working at home is not only more convenient for employees ,but also beneficial to their employers. ○

      Working at home is not only more convenient for employees, but also benefit employers. ×

      两个形容词短语构成平行结构,而第二句but also后使用了动词,与not only后的成分不平行。根据论点据,文章主体部分将从雇主和雇员两个角度进行展开。

      2. 用平行结构举例

      写作中的字数要求一直让部分考生十分痛苦。四级作文字数要求120-150,六级作文也才在150-200之间,而雅思大作文最低字数要求250,托福最低为300,字数上翻了一倍。更何况,作文考试有不成文的规定,很多托福高分作文是550字+。如何凑字数既不痛苦又增添文采呢?答案当然是使用平行结构。一起来感受一下native speaker是如何运用平行结构举例的吧。

      例:

      Television is doing irreparable harm (无法弥补的伤害)

      We used to enjoy civilized pleasures. For instance, we used to have hobbies, we used to entertain our friends and be entertained by them, we used to go outside for our amusements to theatres, cinemas, restaurants and sporting events.

      相信看完这一段举例,即使不读论点句,也能明白作者的态度,作者用了一个used to do总体概括,再用三个used to do举例,形成平行结构,值得考生借鉴。

      例:

      The young generation knows better

      Who said that all the men in the world should wear drab(单调)grey suits and convict (囚犯) haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious matters (如果我们关注到更严肃的问题的话), who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means?

      用反问句+平行结构用来举例,不仅加强语气,而且丰富句型结构,语法正确的情况下,不拿高分都很难。例句先是从时尚方面举例,后用if从句引出社会政治方面的例子,对比青年和中老年之间的不同。同样,不需读论点句,是不是也能猜测出作者的观点呢?平行结构要义是否已经掌握了?做个小测验吧!

      改正不平行结构

      1. Giving is better than to receive.

      2. People can hurt others not only by their actions but also say something hurtful.

      3. It is easier to build strong children than fixing broken adults.

      4. A good paragraph must be both adequately lighted and have clear focus.

      5. Cheating can result in failing the assignment, failing the entire course, getting suspended, or expulsion from college entirely.

      参考答案

      1. Giving is better than receiving.

      2. People can hurt others not only by their actions but also by their words.

      3. It is easier to build strong children than to fix broken adults.

      4. A good paragraph must be both adequately lighted and clearly focused.

      5. Cheating can result in failing the assignment, failing the entire course, getting suspended, or getting expelled from college entirely.

      更多托福备考资讯,请进入重庆环球教育托福频道。最后,祝愿所有的考生考试顺利!


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