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    透析英语阅读中的“结构化阅读”
    2018-01-31 15:58:22      来自: 重庆西侨英语学校      点击: 1290

      英语阅读一直被认为是英语考试中必须拿高分的单项。因为我们已经习惯了乐此不疲地背单词,分析长难句,甚至做逐句翻译等等。但是,我们却陷入了阅读速度慢,整合、预判信息的能力弱,掌握的信息七零八落的怪圈。那么如何在踏踏实实积累词汇和语法知识的基础上,进一步提升阅读能力呢?我们一起来看看结构化阅读。

    重庆西侨英语培训机构

      顾名思义,结构化阅读即从英语阅读结构出发,从整体着眼纵观全文,不再为小词小句伤脑,而是把握全文的框架,这样有利于形成思维预判,增强学生做题信心。

      我们先来一起探寻英语阅读本身的奥秘,(如上图所示),英语文章由初级的词汇题到总结题,信息归纳题等10 个不同的题型其实正是对应了从单词、句子、段落到篇章不同级别的难度要求,对学生的能力要求也是逐级递增的。学习了英语阅读本身的出题特点后可以鲜明的推断出其结构性强,学术型强的特点。结构化的文章凸显了可预测的特点,而学术表达的需求正是通过文章结构衍生出的。结合 TPO 阅读真题对比分析后大致可以将英语阅读文章分成六大基本类别:研究描述类、研究叙述类、对比类、现象解释类、问题解决类以及观点论证类。对应分类如下:

      ① 研究描述:研究对象 → 方面1 / 方面2

      TPO 09 - Reflection in Teaching

      TPO 11 - Ancient Egyptian Sculpture

      TPO 14 - Children and Advertising

      TPO 15 - A Warm Blooded Turtle

      TPO 22 - Spartina

      TPO 26 - Energy and the Industrial Revolution

      TPO 29 - Characteristics of Roman Pottery

      TPO 30 - Role of Play in Development

      TPO 33 - Railroads and Commercial Agriculture in Nineteenth Century

      TPO 43 - The Empire of Alexander the Great

      TPO 45 - Wind pollination

      TPO 47 - Roman Cultural Influence on Britain

      ② 研究叙述:研究对象 阶段1 → 阶段2

      TPO 02 - Early Cinema

      TPO 06 - Powering the Industrial Revolution

      TPO 09 - The Arrival of Plant Life in Hawaii

      TPO 12 - Transition to Sound in Film

      TPO 16 - Development of the Periodic Table

      TPO 19 - Succession Climax and Ecosystems

      TPO 29 - The History of Waterpower

      TPO 34 - Islamic Art and the Book

      TPO 34 - The Development of Steam Power

      TPO 40 - Ancient Athens

      TPO 46 - The Origins of Writing

      ③ 对比分类:研究对象 → 分类1 / 分类2

      TPO 04 - Deer Populations of the Puget Sound

      TPO 07 - Ancient Rome and Greece

      TPO 12 - Water in the Desert

      TPO 13 - Types of Social Groups

      TPO 16 - Planets in Our Solar System

      TPO 17 - Animal Signals in the Rain Forest

      TPO 17 - Symbiotic Relationships

      TPO 20 - Fossil Preservation

      TPO 28 - Buck Rubs and Buck Scrapes

      TPO 32 - Plant Colonization

      TPO 42 - Callisto and Ganymede

      TPO 45 - Feeding Strategies in the Ocean

      ④ 现象解释:研究对象 → 解释1 / 解释2

      TPO 02 - Desert Formation

      TPO 05 - The Cambrian Explosion

      TPO 06 - Infantile Amnesia

      TPO 08 - The Rise of Teotihuacán

      TPO 10 - Variations in the Climate

      TPO 10 - Seventeenth - Century European Economic Growth

      TPO 18 - Industrialization in the Netherlands and Scandinavia

      TPO 18 - Lightning

      TPO 20 - Westward Migration

      TPO 21 - Autobiographical Memory

      TPO 24 - Moving into Pueblos

      TPO 29 – Competition

      TPO 31 - Savanna Formation

      TPO 32 - Siam 1851–1910

      TPO 40 - Latitude and Biodiversity

      TPO 42 - Explaining Dinosaur Extinction

      TPO 48 - Chinese Population Growth

      TPO 48 - Climate and Urban Development

      ⑤ 问题解决:解决困难 → 方法1 / 方法2

      TPO 04 - Petroleum Resources

      TPO 13 - Methods of Studying Infant Perception

      ⑥ 观点论证:观点看法 → 证据1 / 证据2

      TPO 01 - The Origins of Theater

      TPO 02 - The Origins of Cetaceans

      TPO 07 - The Geologic History of the Mediterranean

      TPO 09 - Colonizing the Americas via the Northwest Coast

      TPO 11 - Begging by Nestlings

      TPO 11 - Orientation and Navigation

      TPO 12 - Which Hand Did They Use

      TPO 14 - Pastoralism in Ancient Inner Eurasia

      TPO 15 - Mass Extinctions

      TPO 21 - The Origins of Agriculture

      TPO 26 - Sumer and the First Cities of the Ancient Near East

      TPO 31 - Speciation in Geographically Isolated Populations

      TPO 34 - Protection of Plants by Insects

      TPO 41 - Trade and Early State Formation

      TPO 43 - The Origin of Petroleum

      TPO 46 - Ecosystem Diversity and Stability

      初学英语时,同学们一般未见英语阅读却“闻风丧胆”,练了英语真题却“头晕目眩”。当你的基础能力还未达到一定程度时,面对学术性强的文章常常感觉无聊,也无从下手,错误率自然很高。那么从结构化阅读着手,又是如何一步步地帮助学生进步呢?

      老师们可以通过类比的方式从熟悉的事物出发,帮助学生了解什么是现象解释类,研究描述类等等。只有对每种类型的基本结构了如指掌,学生才能又快又好的庖丁解“英语阅读”。

      以现象解释类文章为例,从“为什么胖”